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Radiation input to humans is complex.
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Radiation effects and shielding requirements in human missions to the moon and Mars

1Donald Rapp

1Independent contractor, 1445 Indiana Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91030, USA

Mars 2, 46-71, 2006 | doi:10.1555/mars.2006.0004
Received April 6, 2006 | Accepted August 4, 2006 | Published September 29, 2006

Protection from radiation remains a concern for lunar human missions and a major hurdle for Mars human missions. Quantitative estimates are provided.

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